Cow is the common name for animals in the genus of mammals with the scientific name Bos, including wild bovine (bison) and domesticated forms. The genus Bos can be divided into four subgenus: Bos, Bibos, Novibos, Poephagus, but the distinction between them is still controversial. This genus currently has 5 extant species. However, some authors consider this genus to have up to 7 species because domesticated cattle breeds are also considered separate species by them.

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Domestic or domestic cattle are the most commonly domesticated ungulates. They are prominent modern representatives of the subfamily Bovinae, and the most common species of the genus Bovine, of the species Bos primigenius. Cows are raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal), as dairy cows for milk and other daily products, and as draft animals.

Cows have a stomach with 4 compartments including rumen, honeycomb, locust, and star fruit, with rumen being the largest compartment. The hive is the smallest compartment. Cows sometimes ingest metal objects they accumulate in the hive’s stomach and irritation from metal objects causes hardware diseases. The main function of the splenomegaly is to absorb water and nutrients from digestible food. It is like the human stomach, and this is why it is called the “real stomach”.

Cows are ruminants, so their digestive system allows the use of difficult-to-digest foods by chewing food over and over again. Chewing allows special microorganisms in the rumen to digest food. These microorganisms function to break down cellulose and other carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids, which cows use as basic metabolic fuel. Microorganisms in the rumen also synthesize amino acids from non-protein nitrogen sources such as urea and ammonia. Since these microorganisms reproduce in the rumen, the older generations die and their cells continue on the digestive tract. These cells are then partially digested by the cow, allowing for a high-quality protein source. These characteristics allow cows to thrive on grass and other vegetation.