Goats are hoofed ruminants in the family Bovidae. They were livestock, after dogs and perhaps contemporaneous with sheep, raised for goat meat, goat milk, and goat skin. This is a breed of cattle with high fertility, meat production, fertility, and is an object of dairy farming. Goats live everywhere, from hot regions like Africa to cold regions like Europe, from the plains to the hills.

Wild goats (Capra aegagrus) or mountain goats, wild goats live in herds and live in environments such as forests, hills…

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Domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) also live in herds but are raised by humans and live in a barn, or a land of goat owners raised in that land… Domestic goats are raised to exploit values. economy comes from goats.

Goats have a fluffy coat that covers their entire body. The coat can have only one color or many colors, usually black, gray, white, brown… Goat hair is long and short depending on the species and the different geographical locations in which they live. In goats both males and females may or may not have horns. Goat horns come in many shapes (backward curved, vertical, spirally bent…). Both male and female goats have beards depending on the species.

Goats belong to the type of ruminant animals such as buffaloes, cows, sheep… Goat’s digestive system is structured to be able to digest all kinds of different foods (such as bark, barren trees… ). The mouth of the goat is small, but the lips are very soft, so it can eat a variety of foods (such as grass, branches, leaves, thorns, bark…). Goat tongue has many types of spines, which are different nerve endings, these spines not only distinguish taste but also can estimate the hardness and softness of food.

The upper jaw has no incisors but instead is a large bony mass, which can be considered as a large incisor opposite the 8 incisors in the lower jaw. Goats use the incisors in the lower jaw to cut long and hard foods (such as branches, bushes…) by grinding against the bone mass in the upper jaw, then use 12 pairs of molars to grind more. When eating, goats use their tongue to grab the food. Goats do not chew thoroughly, but chew briefly and then swallow quickly.

Goat’s stomach is a very large organ, with a capacity of up to 30 liters occupying the left abdominal cavity, divided into 4 compartments with separate functions, which can be considered as 4 small stomachs. These four bags have different sizes and uses, including:

The rumen is the largest sac, accounting for about 80% of the total volume of the stomach used to store the swallowed food.

The honeycomb stomach is the smallest bag, with a capacity of about 1-2 liters of the whole stomach, the inner surface has many pentagonal cells, used to grind food.

The sclera is larger than the honeycomb, the inside has many thin fleshy leaves folded (like the pages of a book), used to force food to attract nutrients in the liquid form.

The star fruit is about 40 cm long and has many digestive glands and blood vessels, so it is soft and spongy.

Food, after passing through 4 bags of the stomach, will be transferred to the small intestine including small glands to absorb nutrients to nourish the body, the remaining waste will be pushed down to the large intestine for excretion.