In 1867, scientists discovered in South America a very important fossil, believed to be the skeleton of the first horse on Earth. It was named after the Latin Eohippus, which means “early horse”.

Eohippus appeared on Earth about 60 million years ago. But of course, it wasn’t a horse yet, just as apes were not yet human. After tens of millions of years of evolution, Eohippus evolved into a Pliohippus, with only one toe (and that finger transformed into a clog). Then, it had to evolve again for the horse (as it is now) to emerge from its predecessor Pliohippus.

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Horse has the scientific name Equus Caballus, appeared on Earth about 1 million years ago, that is, it existed before humans about 500,000 years. From what is now the Americas, the species proliferated and spread to Europe and Asia. Interestingly: the horse was born in the Americas, but also became extinct in the Americas after the last ice age (about 10,000 years ago). After the ice melted and the continents split, there were horses everywhere on Earth – except America!

It was only a few hundred years ago that the horse followed in the footsteps of the Spaniards, returning to the place where it first appeared. At that time, humans had been domesticating horses for about 3,000-4,000 years.

Horses are a species of mammal in the family Equidae, order Perissodactyla (hooves). This species was described by Linnaeus in 1758., and is one of the eight extant subspecies of the family Equidae. Horses have undergone an evolutionary process between 45 and 55 million years to go from being a small creature with multi-toed feet to the large animal form with one-toed feet today.

Horses are medium to large mammals, with long heads and mane necks. The slender legs, with only one hoof, are protected by a horny hoof. They have long, slender tails, which either end in a tuft or are completely covered in drooping tufts. They have generally adapted to open terrain, from plains to savannas or deserts or mountains.

The pinna (“ear”) of equine animals is very flexible, allowing them to easily locate the source of the sound. They have bicolor vision. Their eyes are located far to the back of the head, allowing them to have a large field of view, without completely losing binocular vision. Horses also have a Jacobson organ, which allows males to use the “upper lip curl” response to gauge the arousal status of potential mates.